Colour of India

Colour of India

Thursday, May 17, 2012


For the benefit of my readers, I am presenting the time-honoured wisdom of China through the Sayings of Confucius, Mencius, Lao-tzu, Chuang-tzu and Lieh Tzu:

                                                I.    Sayings of Confucius
a.    “Wisdom, benevolence and fortitude---these three are the universal virtues. The means by which they are practiced is another thing. Some are born with the knowledge of these beauties; some know them by study; some gain them as the result of painful experience. But the knowledge, being possessed, it comes to one and the same thing. Some practice them with the ease of nature; some for the sake of their advantage; and some by dint of great effort. But when the work of them is done, it comes to one and the same thing. Having not, yet affecting to have; empty, yet affecting to be full; straightened, yet affecting to be in easy circumstances---it is difficult with such characteristics to be consistent. Ardent, yet not upright; stupid, and yet not attentive; simple, and yet not sincere---such persons I cannot understand.”
b.    “Humanity is like a heavy vessel, and like a long road. He who tries to lift the vessel cannot sustain its weight; he who travels the road cannot accomplish all its distance. There is nothing that has so many different degrees as humanity; and thus who tries to nerve himself to compass it finds it a difficult task.“
c.    “To lie under arms and meet death without regret---this is the strength of Northern regions, and the strong make it their study. To show forbearance and gentleness in teaching others, and not revenge unreasonable conduct, this is the strength of Southern regions, and the good man makes it his study.”
d.   “I have not seen one who loves virtue as he loves beauty. The doings of the Supreme Heaven have neither sound nor smell. That is perfect virtue.”
e.    “A Minister, in serving his Prince, reverently discharges his duties, and makes his emolument a secondary consideration. Truly straightforward was the historiographer Yu. When good government prevailed in his State, he was like an ARROW. When bad government prevailed he was again like an ARROW.”
f.     “The rules aimed at in the Great College where the prevention of evil before it was manifested; the timeliness of instruction just when it was required; the suitability of the lessons in adaptation to circumstances, and the good influence of Example to all those concerned. It was from these four things that the teaching was so flourishing.”
g.   “To be fond of learning is near to wisdom; to practice with vigour is near to benevolence; and to be conscious of shame is near to fortitude. He who knows these three things knows how to cultivate his own character. Knowing how to cultivate his own character, he knows how to govern other men. Knowing how to govern other men, he knows how to govern the Kingdom, with its States and families.”
h.   “What you do not like when done to yourself, do not do to others.”

                                                          II.  Sayings Of Mencius
a.    “A real man is one whose goodness is a part of himself. Of all the qualities of the sage, none is greater than that of being a helper of men to right living. He is ashamed of a reputation beyond his desert. Having found the right way within himself, he rests in it, firm and serene, holding intimate converse with it, and reaching to its fountain-head. He obeys the right and waits for the appointed. His words are plain and simple, yet of widest bearing. The aim is self-culture, yet it gives peace to all men.”
b.    “All things are already complete in us. There is no greater delight than to be conscious of right within us. If one strive to treat others as he would be treated by them, he shall not fail to come near the perfect life. Every duty is a charge, but a charge of oneself is the root of others. The disease of men is to neglect their own feelings and go to weeding those of others, to exact much from others and lay light burdens on themselves. A true scholar holds possession of himself, neither by riches nor poverty forced away from his virtue.”
c.    Let not a man do what his sense of right bids him not to do, nor desire what it forbids him to desire. This is sufficient. The skilled artist will not alter his measures for the sake of a stupid workman.”
d.   “The honour which man confers is not true honour. Those to whom Chaou Mang gave rank, he can degrade again. He whose good name comes from what he is, needs no trappings. The ancients cultivated the Nobility of Heaven, leaving that of men to follow in its train. Serving Heaven consists in nourishing the real constitution of our Being, anxious neither about death nor life.”
e.    “The great man is he who does not lose his child-heart. He does not think beforehand that his words shall be sincere, nor that his acts shall be resolute; he simply abides in the right.”
f.     “When Heaven is about to confer a Great Office on any man, it first disciplines his mind with suffering, and his bones and sinews with toil. It exposes him to want and subjects him to extreme poverty. It confounds his undertakings. By all these methods it stimulates his mind, hardens him, and supplies his incompetencies.”
g.   “Abstract good principles are not enough to give the Kingdom peace; laws cannot execute themself. If the good and wise be not trusted, the State will come to naught. The people are the most important element in a State; the Ruler is the least.”

                     III.    Sayings Of Lao-tzu
a.    “There is something, chaotic yet complete, which existed before Heaven and Earth. Oh, how still it is and formless, standing alone without changing, reaching everywhere without suffering harm! It must be regarded as the Mother of the Universe. Its name I know not. To designate it I call it TAO. Endeavouring to describe it, I call it great.”
b.    “The TAO that can be trodden is not the enduring and unchanging TAO. He who knows the TAO does care to speak about it; he who is ever-ready to speak about it does not know it. Those who know the TAO are not extensively learned; the extensively learned do not know it.”
c.    “The relation of TAO to all the world is like that of the great rivers and seas to the streams from the valleys.”
d.   “The TAO which can be expressed in words is not the eternal TAO; the name which can be uttered is not its eternal name. Without a name, it is the beginning of Heaven and Earth; with a name, it is the Mother of all things.”
e.    “Only one who is eternally free from earthly passions can apprehend the spiritual essence of TAO; he who is ever-clogged by passions can see no more than its outer form.”
f.     “These two things, the spiritual and the material, though we call them by different names, in their origin are one and the same. This sameness is a mystery---the mystery of mysteries. It is the gate of all spirituality.”
g.   TAO eludes the sense of sight and is therefore called colourless. It eludes the sense of hearing and is therefore called soundless. It eludes the sense of touch and is therefore called incorporeal. These three qualities cannot be apprehended, and hence they may be blended into UNITY.”
h.   “The mightiest manifestation of active force flow solely from TAO.”
i.     “Its upper part is not bright, and its lower part is not obscure. Ceaseless in action, it cannot be named, but returns again to nothingness. We may call it the form of the formless, the image of the imageless, the fleeting and indeterminable. Would you go before it you cannot see its face; would you go behind it, you cannot see its back.”
j.     TAO in itself is vague, impalpable---how impalpable, how vague! Yet within it there is Substance. How profound, how obscure! Yet within it there is a vital Principle. This Principle is the Quintessence of Reality, and out of it comes Truth. From of old until now, its name has never passed away. It watches over the beginning of all things. How do I know this about the beginning of things? Through TAO."
k.    “Therefore TAO is great; Heaven is great; the Earth is great and the Sovereign also is great. In the Universe there are four powers, of which the Sovereign is one. Man takes his Law from the Earth; the Earth takes its Law from Heaven; Heaven takes its Law from TAO; but the Law of TAO is its own spontaneity.”

                      IV.   Sayings Of Chuang-tzu
a.    TAO gives me this form, this toil in manhood, this repose in old age, this rest in death. And surely, that which is such a kind of arbiter of my life is the best arbiter of my death.”
b.    “All things spring from germs. Under many diverse forms, these things are ever being reproduced. Round and round, like a wheel, no part of which is more the starting point than any other. This is called Heavenly Equilibrium. And he who holds the scales is God.”
c.    “How do I know that love of life is not a delusion after all? How do I know but that he who dreads to die is as a child who has lost its way and cannot find its home?”
d.   “He who knows what God is, and who knows what man is, has attained. Knowing what God is, he knows that he himself proceeded therefrom. Knowing what man is, he rests in the knowledge of the known, waiting for the knowledge of the unknown. Working out one’s allotted span, and not perishing in mid-career,---this is the fullness of knowledge.”
e.    “There is nothing which is not objective; there is nothing which is not subjective. But it is impossible to start from the objective. Only from the subjective knowledge is it possible to proceed to objective knowledge. Hence it has been said: ‘The objective emanates from the subjective; the subjective is consequent upon the objective. This is the Alternation Theory’.”
f.     “Therefore all things are One. What we love is animation. What we hate is corruption. But corruption in its turn becomes animation, and animation once more becomes corruption.”
g.   “When I seek for a beginning, I find only time infinite. When I look forward to an end, I see only time infinite. Infinity of time passed and to come implies no beginning and is in accordance with the laws of material existences. Predestination and Chance give us a beginning, but one which is compatible with the existence of matter.”
h.   “To which the Spirit of the Ocean replied: ’You cannot speak of ocean to a well-frog, the creature of a narrower sphere. You cannot speak of ice to a summer insect, a creature of a season. You cannot speak of TAO to a pedagogue; his scope is too restricted. But now that you have emerged from your narrow sphere and have seen the great ocean, you know your own insignificance, and I can speak to you of great principles’.”
i.     “Dimensions are limitless; time is endless. Conditions are not invariable; terms are not final. Thus the wise man looks into space, and does not regard the small as too little, nor the great as too much; for he knows that there is no limit to dimensions. He looks back into the past, and does not grieve over what is far off, nor rejoice over what is near; for he knows that time is without end. He investigates fullness and decay, and does not rejoice if he succeeds, nor lament if he fails; for he knows the conditions are not invariable. He who clearly apprehends the scheme of existence does not rejoice over life, nor repine ate death; for he knows that terms are not final.”

                                                           V.        Sayings Of Lieh Tzu
a.    “There is a Creative Principle which is itself uncreated; there is a Principle of Change which is itself unchanging. The Uncreated is able to create life; the Unchanging is able to effect change. That which is produced cannot but continue producing; that which is evolved cannot but continue evolving. Hence there is constant production and constant evolution. The law of constant production and of constant evolution at no time ceases to operate.”
b.    “In the Book of the Yellow Emperor it is written: ‘When form becomes active it produces not form but shadow; when sound becomes active it produces not sound but echo’.”

Thursday, May 10, 2012


I am starting a new Series of Articles on this blogspot with effect from today, i.e., 10th May 2012, Thursday. This Series of Articles will be devoted to different areas, aspects, and vistas of KNOWLEDGE and WISDOM. Knowledge is the eye of desire and can become the pilot of the soul. The great English poet S.T. Coleridge (1772 - 1834), said: "Common sense to an uncommon degree is what the world calls wisdom." Wisdom is to the mind what health is to the body. There is an Arabic proverb which says, "A wise man's day is worth a fool's life."

I have always been fascinated by this timeless Quote from Thomas Carlyle (1795 - 1881), "The wise man is but a clever infant, spelling letters from a hieroglyphical prophetic book, the lexicon of which lies in eternity."

I have studied very carefully more than 500 outstanding works in both Western and Eastern Philosophy. But I say with humility and reverence that I have understood more about the art of living and wisdom from the following Quote from Plato (424/423 BC - 348/347 BC): "Perfect wisdom has four parts, viz; wisdom, the principle of doing things aright; justice, the principle of doing things equally in public and private; fortitude, the principle of not flying away from danger,but meeting it; and temperance, the principle of subduing desires and living moderately."

I am of the view that true wisdom is to know what is best worth knowing, and to do what is best worth doing. He who learns the rules of wisdom without conforming to them in his life is like a man who ploughs in his field but does not sow. Moreover, what is tragic and pitiable is that every man finds it easy to be wise for others than to be wise himself. The strongest symptom of wisdom in man is his being sensible of his own faults, follies and foibles.

I have always been fascinated by this Quote from Epictetus (55 AD - 135 AD): "The two powers which in my opinion constitute a wise man are those of bearing and forbearing."

The first point of wisdom is to discern what is false; the second to know that which is true.

There is a Chinese proverb which declares: "Seeking wisdom thou art wise; in imagining that thou hast attained it thou art a fool."

A wise man is one who knows the sources of knowledge---who knows who has written and where it is to be found.

Socrates (469 BC - 399 BC) said: "The Delphic Oracle said I was the wisest of all the Greeks. It is because that I alone, of all the Greeks, knew that I know nothing."

We seem to be blinded by the dazzling and flashing floodlights of information technology revolution today. A man who really saw the futility of seeking and chasing a mass of inert information in a nameless and soulless manner was a great English poet, T.S. Eliot (1888-1965). As early as in 1934, he wrote the following poem in which he prophetically complained that wisdom was getting obliterated by knowledge and knowledge was getting extinguished by information. I am presenting this poem below for the benefit of my readers:

                                   Stories of the Human Spirit                               
                                       T. S. Eliot (1888-1965)                                  
The Rock (1934)

T.S. Eliot (1888-1965)

Opening Stanza from Choruses from "The Rock"

The Eagle soars in the summit of Heaven,
The Hunter with his dogs pursues his circuit.

O perpetual revolution of configured stars,

O perpetual recurrence of determined seasons,

O world of spring and autumn, birth and dying

The endless cycle of idea and action,
Endless invention, endless experiment,
Brings knowledge of motion, but not of stillness;
Knowledge of speech, but not of silence;
Knowledge of words, and ignorance of the Word.
All our knowledge brings us nearer to our ignorance,
All our ignorance brings us nearer to death,
But nearness to death no nearer to GOD.
Where is the Life we have lost in living?
Where is the wisdom we have lost in knowledge?
Where is the knowledge we have lost in information?
The cycles of Heaven in twenty centuries
Bring us farther from GOD and nearer to the Dust.

I think I have tried to say enough today. I would like to conclude by quoting verbatim the full text of the Prologue which Bertrand Russell (1872-1970) wrote to his autobiography a few years before his death in 1970.

Bertrand Russell (1872-1970)

The Prologue to Bertrand Russell's Autobiography

What I Have Lived For

Three passions, simple but overwhelmingly strong, have governed my life: the longing for love, the search for knowledge, and unbearable pity for the suffering of mankind. These passions, like great winds, have blown me hither and thither, in a wayward course, over a great ocean of anguish, reaching to the very verge of despair. I have sought love, first, because it brings ecstasy - ecstasy so great that I would often have sacrificed all the rest of life for a few hours of this joy. I have sought it, next, because it relieves loneliness--that terrible loneliness in which one shivering consciousness looks over the rim of the world into the cold unfathomable lifeless abyss. I have sought it finally, because in the union of love I have seen, in a mystic miniature, the prefiguring vision of the heaven that saints and poets have imagined. This is what I sought, and though it might seem too good for human life, this is what--at last--I have found.
With equal passion I have sought knowledge. I have wished to understand the hearts of men. I have wished to know why the stars shine. And I have tried to apprehend the Pythagorean power by which number holds sway above the flux. A little of this, but not much, I have achieved.
 Love and knowledge, so far as they were possible, led upward toward the heavens. But always pity brought me back to earth. Echoes of cries of pain reverberate in my heart. Children in famine, victims tortured by oppressors, helpless old people a burden to their sons, and the whole world of loneliness, poverty, and pain make a mockery of what human life should be. I long to alleviate this evil, but I cannot, and I too suffer.
 This has been my life. I have found it worth living, and would gladly live it again if the chance were offered me.

Bertrand Russell (1872-1970) won the Nobel prize for literature for his History of Western Philosophy and was the co-author of Principia Mathematica.

The above lofty ideals of Bertrand Russell have influenced me, inspired me, instructed me and invigorated me very significantly for a lifetime ever since I read the three volumes of Bertrand Russell's autobiography in Periakulam in Madurai district in January 1969. I was then the sub-collector and First Class Magistrate in Periakulam.

Sunday, September 25, 2011




Today is the Birth anniversary of PANDIT DEENDAYAL UPADHYAY.Hindu Revivalism and Renaissance represented a broad trend in the 19th and 20th century India which sought to revitalise Hinduism after a millennium of political, ideological and psychological subjection to Islamic and Western hegemony.

Unlike Hindu traditionalism, it sought to co-opt modernity in its programme of Hindu Reconstruction, Hindu Revival, and Hindu Resurgence. The concept of Hindu Nationalism or 'Hindutva' was given expression by the Hindu Mahasabha (HMS, 1915) and the family of organisations around the Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh (RSS, 1925), including the Bharatiya Jan Sangh (BJS, 1951-1977) and the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP, 1980). Numerically, culturally and ideologically Hindutva became the most important and pronounced tendency within this broad movement of Hindu Renascent Forces.

What is surprising is that the ideological viewpoint, the most penetrating formulations of Hindu Revivalist And Renascent Thought have been provided by remarkably inspired individuals outside these Hindu organisations from the days of Bankimchandra Chatterjee (1838-1894), Swami Vivekananda(1863-1902) and Sri Aurobindo Gosh (1872-1950) to the modern days of Ram Swarup (1920-1998), Sitaram Goel (1921) and their younger friends and comrades today.

Unlike these great men, Deendayal Upadhyay (1916-1968) very much belonged to the RSS and became one of the foremost Ideologues of Hindu Revival or Hindutva in the second half of the 20th century in India. Deendayal Upadhyay was born on 25 September, 1916, in the village of Dhankia in Rajasthan. He lost his father Bhagwati Prasad when he was less than three years old and his mother before he was eight. He was then brought up by his maternal uncle.

Deendayal was outstanding in his studies and stood first in all his examinations. Braving the odds, he passed the intermediate board examination with distinction from Birla College in Pilani. He took his BA Degree from Sanatan Dharma College in Kanpur. Later he took his MA Degree from Agra University. He joined the Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh (RSS). He dedicated himself to full-time work in the RSS from 1942. Deendayal Upadhyaya was a man of soaring idealism and had a tremendous capacity for organisation. He started a Monthly Rashtra Dharma, a Weekly Panchajanya and a Daily Swadesh.

In 1951, when Dr Syama Prasad Mookerjee founded the Bharatiya JANA SANGH, Deendayal became the first General Secretary of its UP branch. Next he was chosen as All-India General Secretary. The acumen and meticulousness shown by Deendayal deeply impressed Dr Mookerjee and elicited his famous remark: 'If I had two Deendayals, I could transform the political face of India.'

After Dr. Shyamaprasad Mookerjee's death in 1953, the entire burden of nurturing the orphaned JANA SANGH and building it up as a nation-wide movement fell on the young shoulders of Pandit Deendayal Upadhyay. Deendayalji assumed the reins of leadership of the JANA SANGH PARTY and, after fifteen years of untiring efforts, brought the party to a level where a new set of political pundits began to see it as a distinct alternative to the Congress.

Although the Jana Sangh had a succession of Presidents between 1953 and 1967, as its constitution stipulated that the President’s tenure could be of only one year, everybody knew that Deendayalji, its General Secretary in charge of the organisation, was the mind, heart and soul of the party. As a matter of fact, he was more than the organisational head of the party. He was its philosopher, guide and motivator all rolled into one.

Pandit Deenadayal Upadhyay wrote a book titled “POLITICAL DIARY”. This book was released  at a Public Funstion in Mumbai in 1966. This book was released by Shri Kinhaiyalal Munshi (Shri.K.M.Munshi) under the Presidentship of Guruji Golwalkar

The final triumph of his statesmanship and vision was the historic session of the party in Calicut in 1967. Deendayal was a deep and original thinker. His philosophy of Integral Humanism, which is a synthesis of the material and the spiritual, the individual and the collective, bears eloquent testimony to this. In the field of politics and economics, he was pragmatic and down to earth. He visualised for India a decentralized polity and self-reliant economy with the village as the base.

Deendayal welcomed modern technology but wanted it to be adapted to suit Indian requirements. Deendayal believed in a constructive approach. He exhorted his followers to co-operate with the government when it was right and fearlessly oppose it whenever and wherever it erred. He placed nation's interest above everything else. Unfortunately his very promising political future was tragically cut short in 1968

Inscrutable are the ways of the Almighty. Just when the Jana Sangh had ascended one peak of glory, and was all set to scale further summits of success in the years to come, tragedy struck. The cruel hand of destiny took away Deendayalji’s life within two months of his becoming the party President. He was murdered by unknown assailants while travelling in a night-train from Lucknow to Patna on 11 February 1968. His body was found near the tracks at Mughal Sarai railway station.

The following rousing call given by Deendayal Upadhyay to the thousands of delegates at the Calicut Session in 1967, still continues to reverberate in the ears of all patriotic Bharatvasis who believe in the RULE AND REIGN OF SANATANA DHARMA and subscribe to the political philosophy of HINDUTVA:

“We are pledged to the service not of any particular community or section but of the entire nation. Every countryman is blood of our blood and flesh of our flesh. We shall not rest till we are able to give to every one of them a sense of pride that they are able to give to every one of them a sense of pride that they are children of Bharatmata. We shall make Mother India Sujala, Suphala (overflowing with water and laden with fruits) in the real sense of these words. As Dashapraharana Dharini Durga (Goddess Durga with her 10 weapons) she would be able to vanquish evil; as Lakshmi she would be able to disburse prosperity all over and as Saraswati she would dispel the gloom of ignorance and spread the radiance of knowledge all around her. With faith in ultimate victory, let us dedicate ourselves to this task.”

Deendayal Upadhyay was convinced that we as an independent nation cannot rely upon Western concepts like individualism, democracy, socialism, communism, etc. and he was of the view that the Indian polity after our independence had been raised upon these superficial Western foundations and not rooted in the timeless traditions of our ancient culture raised upon Sanatana Dharma. He was of the view that the Indian intellect was getting suffocated by Western theories and ideologies and consequently there was a big roadblock on the growth and expansion of original Bharathiya thought. He said that there was an urgent public need for a fresh breeze.

As Dr Maheshchandra Sharma has beautifully put it: “The satanic Western imperialist forces continue to overshadow the Bharathiya environment. The native ethos is feeling suffocated for want of a refreshing, rejuvenating and homely breeze. The second-rate academic curriculums constructed on the Westernised agenda has hindered the growth of Bharathiya originality. The unique institutions of Bharat such as family, marriage system, village and community organisations are getting lifeless. The Indian science and talent do not find a congenial environment to grow. We are bereft of the knowledge and traditions of the realisation of 'Ekatma' (integral unity) of 'Vyashti', 'Samashti', 'Srishti' and 'Parameshti' (Individuality, Society, Humanity and Almighty) which was discovered and experienced by the Bharathiya ethos for more than 10,000 years. Individualism, socialism, marketism and consumerism have led the Indian humanity to wander helplessly in the blind alleys. Humanity is calling frantically for the spiritual-life for immediate rescue.”

Swami Vivekananda, Sri Aurobindo, Maharishi Dayananda Sarasvati, Lokamanya Tilak had given the clarion call for such a rescue. This call had a bearing on the struggle for freedom. The Western imperialists cunningly changed the 'eternal urge for freedom' into an arid and lifeless carcass of 'Transfer of Power' on 15 August, 1947. No wonder Western ideology was put on the pedestal on 15 August, 1947 by MAULANA JAWAHARLAL NEHRU and consequently all values and things Western 'divorced from Indian ethos' got a tremendous boost from the Government of India after our independence. Even today, the paradigms and concepts of our leaders in general are West-oriented.

Deendayal Upadhyay gave his 'Moolamantra' of 'Integral Humanism' to our country at Gwalior in 1964. This concept which is attributed to him was not his individual ideal. There is no doubt that as a great patriot and a practicing Hindu, he only gave the term and the definition. It was inherited from the age-old philosophy of Bharathiya tradition. Deendayal Upadhyay himself stated: “The Individual is a Manifestation Unique of his whole society which breathes and fosters all with Nature in perfect amity. Do not draw a line between the two entities. The Integral Man one and all are nothing but One Almighty. Our rishis and seers told us that there is nothing but One Almighty! Be it the individual or society.”

It will thus be clear that Deen Dayal Upadhyay was a great thinker who derived his inspiration from ancient India's cultural heritage and tradition. He made it clear that India cannot adopt the philosophy of Western individualism or of socialism as propounded by Karl Marx. Every particle contains the entire universe and the universe through every particle manifests in every other particle. We have inherited this invaluable integral thinking through our ancient traditions. The Bharathiya philosophy is integral. It uplifts the personality of the individual as well as the all-round prosperity of the society. If we want to reconstruct our national economy, we should do it in the light of 'Integral Humanism'. In line with our ethos, we will have to build up a de-centralised economy. Our great planning based on Western models cannot give work to every hand in India.

Government of India honoured Deendayal Upadhyaya with the Issue of a Commemorative Postage Stamp on 5th of May 1978.

In 1990 DEEN DAYAL UPADHYAYA COLLEGE, affiliated to the University of Delhi, was established.


Deen Dayal Upadhyaya College
Please see the Statue of Deendayal  above

This constituent college of the University of Delhi was established in 1990 in memory of Late Pandit Deen Dayal Upadhyaya, a thinker, philosopher and renowned Social worker. It is a multi-faculty co-educational college having at present approximately 1500 students on its roles in various courses. The main focus of Deen Dayal Upadhyaya College is on the creation of confident, dedicated, honest, upright, spirited and poatriotic individuals who will be an asset to the sacred cause of selfless service of Bharatvarsha.


I had requested my Revered Friend Sadhu Prof. V. Rangarajan, Founder Trustee, Sri Bharatamata Gurukula Ashram Krishnarajapuram, Bangalore who had come into close contact with PANDIT DEENDAYAL UPADHYAYA in the last years of his life to send me the message of his tribute to Pandit Deendayal Upadhyaya. He has very kindly and spontaneously sent his message. I deem it a great privilege to publish below the Full Text of His Message.

Sadhu Prof. V. Rangarajan

“Pandit Deendayal Upadhyaya was the personification of humility, simple living and high thinking, dedication to the cause of Motherland, discipline, character and other noble virtues of the head and heart. He was a unique political leader of post-independent India for whom service of the nation and its people was a ‘dhyeya sadhana’—intense Tapas—not only for his own spiritual salvation, but for the emancipation of millions of children of the holy land of Bharatavarsha.

“Born on Monday, September 25, 1916, in a family which hailed from Brij region of Uttar Pradesh, Deendayalji lost both his father Bhagwati Prasad and mother Rampyari in his infancy and was brought up by his uncle. He grew up with an austere and tough life, but stood in the forefront in his studies and graduated from Kanpur University. He also qualified himself for ICS, but instead of choosing a lucrative career and life of comfort and pleasure, he dedicated his life for the service of his motherland by walking on the footsteps of his mentors, Dr. K.B. Hedgewar, the founder of Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh, and Sri Guruji Golwalkar, the second Sarsangchalak of the RSS, and became a pracharak along with his illustrious colleague, Nanaji Deshmukh. He started the Rashtra Dharma Prakashan, a publication wing of the Sangh, and Panchajanya weekly and Swadesh daily to spread the message of Sangh.

“When the great patriot and national leader, Dr. Shyam Prasad Mukherji, standing for the total integration of Kashmir with Bharat, came out of the Nehru Cabinet protesting against the policy of Pandit Nehru on Kashmir, and founded the Bharatiya Jan Sangh, Sri Guruji Golwalkar presented this gem of swayamsevak to Dr. Mukherji to help him in founding the political party in 1951. Though Deendayal was least interested in making politics his career, he took up the task given to him with the true dedication and spirit of service of a swayamsevak and played a great role in building up the party not only in northern India, but spread its wings to the southern most province of Kerala. Dr. Mukherji had rightly remarked about Deendayalji: ” If I had two Deendayals, I could transform the political face of India”.

“This writer, as a humble and dedicated full-time worker of RSS, met Pandit Deendayalji in 1967, when the latter came to Tiruchirappally to campaign for this sadhu who was fielded as a candidate of the Bharatiya Jan Sangh for the Tamilnadu Legislative Assembly from Tiruchi-1 constituency. A poor and penniless youth who didn’t have even a third set of clothes to wear, this sadhu was chosen as a candidate to contest against a Congress candidate who was chairman of Tiruchy Municipality and a prominent DMK leader, simply because he was totally dedicated to the cause of the country and the people and also hailed from a family which produced the great patriot and colleague of Veer Savarkar, Dr. T.S.S. Rajan who also belonged to Tiruchy. After inaugurating the election campaign of this sadhu in Tiruchy Medical Association Hall, Pandit Deendayalji gave a piece of wise counselling to this sadhu: “Do not bother about the outcome of this election. We are contesting not for the sake of power and position, but to carry to the masses the highest ideologies of the Jan Sangh and instil the nationalist and patriotic feelings in them”.

“After the elections, this sadhu moved to Delhi, Patna and later to Nagpur as Editor of Hindustan Samachar news agency. In Nagpur, while staying in ‘Dr. Hedgewar Bhavan’, the headquarters of RSS, this sadhu had the opportunity to watch from close quarters the humble, simple, austere and disciplined life of the great leader, Deendayalji. Whenever he came to Nagpur, he used to stay in the Bhavan, though he was a tall national President of a prominent political party. He used to sit in the common dining hall and take food with all of us, the workers of the Sangh, and Sri Guruji, and take bath in the common bathroom. One day, when Deendayalji was washing his clothes in the common bath room, this sadhu and another swayamsevak noticed that his buniyan (inner vest cloth) was torn in the back and he was using it after stitching it with his own hands. After he had hung his clothes for drying in the sun, we clandestinely removed the old buniyan, got a new one of white cloth stitched in the same form and put it on the lines. In the afternoon, when Deendayalji was searching for his buniyan we pointed to the new one and insisted that it was his. Deendayalji understood our game and coolly collected it. Next day, we found the cook of the Karyalaya was wearing it. When we questioned Deendayalji, he coolly replied that he did not need a new buniyan and the old one could serve him for another year. He asked us to return the old one to him.

“On February 11, 1968, sitting in the teleprinter room of Hindustan Samachar, this sadhu received the shocking news that Pandit Deendayal was found dead on the railway track at Mugalsarai Railway Station. We were all shell shocked, because only a few days earlier this sadhu had taken his interview in Nagpur. While giving interview to us, he jovially remarked: “Whenever a politician gives interview to a journalist, he will pamper the journalist with all delicacies and even gifts to get good publicity, but I want you to get me a cup of tea before we go in for the interview”. Accordingly we arranged for a cup of tea from the kitchen of the Karyalaya of the Sangh.Before he left Nagpur, Sri Guruji casually asked him, “When will we meet again?”” Deendayalji’s jovial reply, “We will meet in all births”, did not mean to us at that time that this great Tapasvi, had the premonition of his departure from this world very soon.

“Deendayalji was an ajatasatru, one who was always lovable, soft-spoken and one who never uttered harsh words against his opponents. His fearless expression of patriotic sentiments and ideals of intense nationalism attracted the wrath of unpatriotic and anti-national forces which planned to push him into the clutches of death. However, he will ever remain immortal in the hearts of millions of swayamsevaks and karyakartas for whom he is the ideal of patriotism, dedication and selfless service to the Hindu Rashtra. Vande Mataram! “ 

Thursday, September 15, 2011



Engineering is the discipline, art, skill and profession of acquiring and applying scientific, mathematical, economic, social, and practical knowledge, in order to design and build structures, machines, devices, systems, materials and processes that safely realize improvements to the lives of people. The broad discipline of engineering encompasses a range of more specialized sub-disciplines, each with a more specific emphasis on certain fields of application and particular areas of technology.

In India, Engineer's day is celebrated on September 15 every year. Happily this day also happens to coincide with the Birthday of MOKSHAGUNDAM VISVESVARAYA who was born in 1861. He was a man of many splendours. He was an outstanding engineer, scholar, statesman and served with unsurpassed distinction as the Diwan of Mysore from 1912 to 1919. Visvesvaraya is often hailed as the architect of the all-round development of Karnataka in the 20th Century from 1910 to 1960. Among his most successful projects were the design and construction of the Krishnaraja Sagar dam and its adjoining Brindavan Gardens, modernization of the Bhadravati Iron and Steel Works, setting up of the Mysore Sandalwood Oil Factory and the founding of the Bank of Mysore. Internationally recognised for his genius in harnessing water resources, he was responsible for successful design and construction of several river dams, bridges and implementing irrigation and drinking water schemes all over India in the decade immediately after our independence from 1950 to 1960.

2011 happens to be the 150th Anniversary of the Birth of Visvesvaraya in 1861. This Anniversary is being celebrated on a grand scale in Karnataka State and elsewhere in India. Institutes of Technical Education, Industrial Bodies and Organizations, Commercial Banks, Nationalized Banks, the State Governments and the Government of India have joined hands to pay a fitting tribute to Mokshagundam Visvesvaraya, on the occasion of his 150th Birth Anniversary.

As a part of the 150th Birthday Celebrations, his birth place in Muddenahalli in Chikkaballapur district is getting a facelift, his old house there has been converted into a well-equipped Museum. The State Bank of Mysore’s Personal Pass Book of  Sir Visvesvaraya, his Civil Engineering Degree Certificate, the Doctrate Certificate he received from Patna University, a 1923 Typewriter  used by him and a Dictionary that was gifted to him as a memento in 1881 by Charles Watters, the then Principal of Central College of Engineering in Poona, are all displayed in this museum.

More importantly, Visvesvaraya’s dream of making use of cost-effective modern technology for accelerated rural development is getting fulfilled and realised in more senses than one.

The Union Government, has announced several new Projects and Programmes to be launched on the birthday of Visvesvarya on September 15, 2011. These include a National Skill Development Programme, an Entrepreneurship Development Programme, a Rural Development & Self-Employment Training Institute (Rudiset), Micro And Medium Enterprises Awareness Programmes as well as a Rural BPO.

An outstanding-engineer, a meticulous administrator, a far-seeing statesman Mokshagundam Visvesvaraya was a visionary and an architect of planning in India. He was born on 15th September 1860 at Muddenahalli village in an ortho­dox lower middle class Brahmin family in Kolar district in Mysore State. Mokshagundam is a village in Kurnool District in Andhra Pradesh from where his ancestors moved to Mysore state about 300 years ago. The prefix Mokshagundam is traceable to this fact of his ancestry in Andhra Pradesh. His father, Srinivasa Sastri was a Sanskrit Scholar and an au­thority on Hindu scriptures. He was also an exponent of Ayurveda. His mother, Venkachamma had a powerful influence in moulding Visvesvaraya’s life and career. His father died in 1876 when he was 16. He had to face many difficulties. He had no house to live in and no money to meet his expenses. Only two things he had in plenty; courage and determination. His maternal uncle Ramiah helped him to get into Central College, Bangalore. He passed the B.A. Degree Examination from that college in 1880 with distinction.

Rangacharalu the Dewan of Mysore of­fered Visvesvaraya a Mysore government scholar­ship for further studies in Engineering Col­lege, Poona. He completed the course again with distinction in 1883. In 1884, he joined the PWD of the Government of Bombay as an Assistant Engineer. He retired of his own accord, as Superintend­ing Engineer in 1908.

 Pandit Nehru with Visvesvaraya

Visvesvaraya’s career in the PWD Department in Bombay Presidency was most distinguished. He was associated with the de­sign, construction or administration of a large number of irrigation schemes in the Bombay Presidency. He played a prominent part in drawing up suitable water supply schemes of several important cities like Dhulia in Khandesh and Sukkur in Sind. During this period, he also designed a new system of automatic waste water flood gates which were installed at Lake Fife which is the Head Works of the Mutha Canal, the source of water supply to Poona city and Cantonment. Gates of the same pattern were subsequently erected on the Rigers Dam in Gwalior and on the Krishnarajasagara Dam across the Cauvery near Mysore. THE DESIGN OF THESE AUTOMATIC GATES WON FOR HIM INTERNATIONAL RECOGNI­TION. HE DEVELOPED A NEW SYSTEM OF IRRIGATION KNOWN AS THE BLOCK SYSTEM IN ORDER TO ENSURE THE ECONOMICAL USE OF CANAL WATERS. The Indian Irrigation Com­mission of 1901-1903 commended the Block System recommended by Dr. M. Visvesvaraya for adoption in the drought prone areas of the Deccan. HIS CAREER AS AN ENGINEER IN THE PWD DEPARTMENT WAS MARKED BY GREAT FERTILITY OF MIND TIRELESS ENERGY AND AN UNSURPASSED SENSE OF PUBLIC DUTY. ON THE SOCIAL FRONT HE WAS RESPONSIBLE FOR STARTING THE DECCAN CLUB AT POONA WITH THE HELP OF HIS FRIENDS, LIKE GOPALA KRISHNA GOKALE, BAL GANGADHAR TILAK AND MAHADEV GOVINDA RANADE--ALL LEADERS OF NATIONAL EMINENCE.

Soon after seeking voluntary retirement from the PWD in the Government of Bombay in 1908, Visvesvaraya went on a world tour. While in Italy, he received an urgent cable from the Nizam's Government requesting him to prepare a scheme to stem the flood havoc caused by the rivers Moosi and Easi in Hyderabad. He undertook a comprehen­sive investigation of the problems involved soon after returning to India and suggested the construction of two dams across the rivers, which were later named Osman Sagar and Himayat Sagar lakes. He be­came Chief Engineer in Mysore State in November 1909 and continued in that position till he became Dewan of Mysore in December 1912. During this term of office he designed and constructed the greater part of a masonary dam across the Cauvery River with a storage capacity of about 48355 million cubic feet, forming the reservoir now know as the Krishnarajasagara. This reservoir was the largest in India ever constructed till that date.

As Dewan of Mysore for seven years (1912-1919) he directed all his energies to the progress of general and technical edu­cation and to the acceleration of the pace of industrial development in the old Mysore State. He founded the University of Mysore in 1916 - the first University to be established in a princely state. He estab­lished a number of industries including the Mysore Iron and Steel Works at Bhadravati, the Sandalwood Soap Factory etc. He expanded and modernised the Railway System in Mysore state. He established the Bank of Mysore in 1913. He established public libraries in major cities. He brought in new measures for the Improvement of administrative efficiency which included a new system of 'efficiency audit'. He ef­fected constitutional and legislative reforms. He introduced new measures for rural reconstruction. In more senses than one, the solid foundation of modern Karnataka were well and truly laid by Dr. M. Visvesvaraya.

In 1925, Visvesvaraya served as Chairman of the Indian Economic Enquiry Committee ap­pointed by the Government of India. He became a Member of the Board of Direc­tors of Tata Iron and Steel Company in 1927 and served in that capacity for 28 years till 1955. He was associated with various financial, industrial and educational committees appointed by several state governments and Government of India from time to time.

He founded the All India Manufacturers' Organisation (AIMO) in 1941 and functioned as its Founder President for 12 years from 1941 to 1953. Dr. M. Visvesvaraya, as its Founder President gave the inspiring message of 'Prosperity Through Industry' to the nation. Apart from several technical reports, his important publications were the following: a) 'Reconstructing India' (1920), b) 'Planned Economy for India' (1934), c) 'Memories of my working life' (1952). He also wrote several pamphlets on indus­tries issued through the All India Manufac­turers' Association, Bombay, such as: 1. 'Prosperity through Industry', 2. 'District Industrialisation Drive', 3. 'Village Industri­alisation' 4. 'Development of Heavy Indus­tries in India'.

Visvesvaraya was obsessed with the dream of an industrialised India, a vision he shared with Jameshedji Tata. Visvesvaraya and Mahatma Gandhi were great friends and were in intimate correspondence with each other. Though they differed widely on industrial matters, yet Gandhiji had a high regard for him. Gandhiji wrote to him: "In spite of the strength of my convictions I entertain a great regard for your fine abilities and love of the country, and that shall be unabated whether I have the good fortune to secure your cooperation or face your honest opposi­tion".

When the Bharata Ratna, the highest title of honour, was to be awarded to him in 1955, he sent word to Jawaharlal Nehru: "If you feel that by giving this title I will praise your Government, you will be disappointed I am a fact finding man". Nehru appreciated his view and requested him to accept the Award. Is it not a matter of shame for all of us that such a thing cannot happen in the India of today where all governments compete with one another in making a very subtle distinction between freedom of speech and freedom after speech? Shameless and servile flattery of thieves, dacoits, robbers, looters, illicit distillers, land grabbers—in short UPA II Union Ministers---has become the Order of the Day!!

Mokshagundam Visvesvaraya passed away peacefully on the 14th of April 1962. Thus born during the Viceroyalty of Lord Canning in 1860, he passed away during the Prime Ministership of Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru. His was a long and many splendoured life, marked by timeless and mag­nificent achievements. Dr. M. Visvesvaraya was one of those rare human beings who practised in personal life what he preached in public. The three signal quali­ties which made him what he was were courage, industry and faith: dauntless courage, unflagging industry, an indomitable faith which was part of his fibre - these were the levers with which he moved the world. His exqui­site urbanity was one of his most conspicu­ous graces. I would like to allude to that grave, old world courtesy, which gave so much distinction to his private life: for his sweetness of manner went far beyond demeanour. Success left him calm, he had had so much of it; nor did failures greatly depress him. The next morning found him once more facing the world with serene and undaunted brow.

                                                                                                                                   15th Sep 1960
Dr. M.Visvesvaraya - Birth Centenary

 Awards and Honours

The Bharat Ratna medal

Visvesvaraya was appointed a Companion of the Order of the Indian Empire (CIE) in 1911. In 1915, while he was the Diwan of Mysore, Visvesvaraya was knighted as a Knight Commander of the Order of the Indian Empire (KCIE) by the British for his myriad contributions to the public good. After India attained independence, Sir M. Visvesvaraya was given the nation's highest honour, the Bharat Ratna, in 1955.

 The Knight Commander of The Indian Empire medal

Sir M.V. was honoured with honorary membership of the international Institution of Civil Engineers (based in London) and a fellowship of the Indian Institute of Science (based in Bangalore). He was awarded several honorary doctoral degrees like D.Sc., LL.D., D.Litt. from eight universities in India. He was president of the 1923 Session of the Indian Science Congress. Sir M.V. was awarded honorary Membership of London Institution of Civil Engineers for an unbroken 50 years.


"Mokshagundam Visvesvaraya bequeathed a pure standard of life, a record of lofty ambition for the public good as he understood it, a monument of life-long labour. Such lives speak for themselves, they need no special statues or monuments, they face the future with the confidence of high purpose and noble endeavour. They bid us to be conscious of our trust, mindful of our duty, scornful of opposition to principle and faith. They summon us to account for time and opportunity; they embody an inspiring tradition. They are time-defying milestones in the life of a nation".