REVERENTIAL SALUTATIONS TO A GREAT SON OF BHARAT MATA
V SUNDARAM I.A.S.
DEENDAYAL UPADHYAY (1916-1968)
Today is the Birth anniversary of PANDIT DEENDAYAL UPADHYAY.Hindu Revivalism and Renaissance represented a broad trend in the 19th and 20th century India which sought to revitalise Hinduism after a millennium of political, ideological and psychological subjection to Islamic and Western hegemony.
Unlike Hindu traditionalism, it sought to co-opt modernity in its programme of Hindu Reconstruction, Hindu Revival, and Hindu Resurgence. The concept of Hindu Nationalism or 'Hindutva' was given expression by the Hindu Mahasabha (HMS, 1915) and the family of organisations around the Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh (RSS, 1925), including the Bharatiya Jan Sangh (BJS, 1951-1977) and the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP, 1980). Numerically, culturally and ideologically Hindutva became the most important and pronounced tendency within this broad movement of Hindu Renascent Forces.
What is surprising is that the ideological viewpoint, the most penetrating formulations of Hindu Revivalist And Renascent Thought have been provided by remarkably inspired individuals outside these Hindu organisations from the days of Bankimchandra Chatterjee (1838-1894), Swami Vivekananda(1863-1902) and Sri Aurobindo Gosh (1872-1950) to the modern days of Ram Swarup (1920-1998), Sitaram Goel (1921) and their younger friends and comrades today.
Unlike these great men, Deendayal Upadhyay (1916-1968) very much belonged to the RSS and became one of the foremost Ideologues of Hindu Revival or Hindutva in the second half of the 20th century in India. Deendayal Upadhyay was born on 25 September, 1916, in the village of Dhankia in Rajasthan. He lost his father Bhagwati Prasad when he was less than three years old and his mother before he was eight. He was then brought up by his maternal uncle.
Deendayal was outstanding in his studies and stood first in all his examinations. Braving the odds, he passed the intermediate board examination with distinction from Birla College in Pilani. He took his BA Degree from Sanatan Dharma College in Kanpur. Later he took his MA Degree from Agra University. He joined the Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh (RSS). He dedicated himself to full-time work in the RSS from 1942. Deendayal Upadhyaya was a man of soaring idealism and had a tremendous capacity for organisation. He started a Monthly Rashtra Dharma, a Weekly Panchajanya and a Daily Swadesh.
In 1951, when Dr Syama Prasad Mookerjee founded the Bharatiya JANA SANGH, Deendayal became the first General Secretary of its UP branch. Next he was chosen as All-India General Secretary. The acumen and meticulousness shown by Deendayal deeply impressed Dr Mookerjee and elicited his famous remark: 'If I had two Deendayals, I could transform the political face of India.'
After Dr. Shyamaprasad Mookerjee's death in 1953, the entire burden of nurturing the orphaned JANA SANGH and building it up as a nation-wide movement fell on the young shoulders of Pandit Deendayal Upadhyay. Deendayalji assumed the reins of leadership of the JANA SANGH PARTY and, after fifteen years of untiring efforts, brought the party to a level where a new set of political pundits began to see it as a distinct alternative to the Congress.
Although the Jana Sangh had a succession of Presidents between 1953 and 1967, as its constitution stipulated that the President’s tenure could be of only one year, everybody knew that Deendayalji, its General Secretary in charge of the organisation, was the mind, heart and soul of the party. As a matter of fact, he was more than the organisational head of the party. He was its philosopher, guide and motivator all rolled into one.
Pandit Deenadayal Upadhyay wrote a book titled “POLITICAL DIARY”. This book was released at a Public Funstion in Mumbai in 1966. This book was released by Shri Kinhaiyalal Munshi (Shri.K.M.Munshi) under the Presidentship of Guruji Golwalkar
The final triumph of his statesmanship and vision was the historic session of the party in Calicut in 1967. Deendayal was a deep and original thinker. His philosophy of Integral Humanism, which is a synthesis of the material and the spiritual, the individual and the collective, bears eloquent testimony to this. In the field of politics and economics, he was pragmatic and down to earth. He visualised for India a decentralized polity and self-reliant economy with the village as the base.
Deendayal welcomed modern technology but wanted it to be adapted to suit Indian requirements. Deendayal believed in a constructive approach. He exhorted his followers to co-operate with the government when it was right and fearlessly oppose it whenever and wherever it erred. He placed nation's interest above everything else. Unfortunately his very promising political future was tragically cut short in 1968
Inscrutable are the ways of the Almighty. Just when the Jana Sangh had ascended one peak of glory, and was all set to scale further summits of success in the years to come, tragedy struck. The cruel hand of destiny took away Deendayalji’s life within two months of his becoming the party President. He was murdered by unknown assailants while travelling in a night-train from Lucknow to Patna on 11 February 1968. His body was found near the tracks at Mughal Sarai railway station.
The following rousing call given by Deendayal Upadhyay to the thousands of delegates at the Calicut Session in 1967, still continues to reverberate in the ears of all patriotic Bharatvasis who believe in the RULE AND REIGN OF SANATANA DHARMA and subscribe to the political philosophy of HINDUTVA:
“We are pledged to the service not of any particular community or section but of the entire nation. Every countryman is blood of our blood and flesh of our flesh. We shall not rest till we are able to give to every one of them a sense of pride that they are able to give to every one of them a sense of pride that they are children of Bharatmata. We shall make Mother India Sujala, Suphala (overflowing with water and laden with fruits) in the real sense of these words. As Dashapraharana Dharini Durga (Goddess Durga with her 10 weapons) she would be able to vanquish evil; as Lakshmi she would be able to disburse prosperity all over and as Saraswati she would dispel the gloom of ignorance and spread the radiance of knowledge all around her. With faith in ultimate victory, let us dedicate ourselves to this task.”
Deendayal Upadhyay was convinced that we as an independent nation cannot rely upon Western concepts like individualism, democracy, socialism, communism, etc. and he was of the view that the Indian polity after our independence had been raised upon these superficial Western foundations and not rooted in the timeless traditions of our ancient culture raised upon Sanatana Dharma. He was of the view that the Indian intellect was getting suffocated by Western theories and ideologies and consequently there was a big roadblock on the growth and expansion of original Bharathiya thought. He said that there was an urgent public need for a fresh breeze.
As Dr Maheshchandra Sharma has beautifully put it: “The satanic Western imperialist forces continue to overshadow the Bharathiya environment. The native ethos is feeling suffocated for want of a refreshing, rejuvenating and homely breeze. The second-rate academic curriculums constructed on the Westernised agenda has hindered the growth of Bharathiya originality. The unique institutions of Bharat such as family, marriage system, village and community organisations are getting lifeless. The Indian science and talent do not find a congenial environment to grow. We are bereft of the knowledge and traditions of the realisation of 'Ekatma' (integral unity) of 'Vyashti', 'Samashti', 'Srishti' and 'Parameshti' (Individuality, Society, Humanity and Almighty) which was discovered and experienced by the Bharathiya ethos for more than 10,000 years. Individualism, socialism, marketism and consumerism have led the Indian humanity to wander helplessly in the blind alleys. Humanity is calling frantically for the spiritual-life for immediate rescue.”
Swami Vivekananda, Sri Aurobindo, Maharishi Dayananda Sarasvati, Lokamanya Tilak had given the clarion call for such a rescue. This call had a bearing on the struggle for freedom. The Western imperialists cunningly changed the 'eternal urge for freedom' into an arid and lifeless carcass of 'Transfer of Power' on 15 August, 1947. No wonder Western ideology was put on the pedestal on 15 August, 1947 by MAULANA JAWAHARLAL NEHRU and consequently all values and things Western 'divorced from Indian ethos' got a tremendous boost from the Government of India after our independence. Even today, the paradigms and concepts of our leaders in general are West-oriented.
Deendayal Upadhyay gave his 'Moolamantra' of 'Integral Humanism' to our country at Gwalior in 1964. This concept which is attributed to him was not his individual ideal. There is no doubt that as a great patriot and a practicing Hindu, he only gave the term and the definition. It was inherited from the age-old philosophy of Bharathiya tradition. Deendayal Upadhyay himself stated: “The Individual is a Manifestation Unique of his whole society which breathes and fosters all with Nature in perfect amity. Do not draw a line between the two entities. The Integral Man one and all are nothing but One Almighty. Our rishis and seers told us that there is nothing but One Almighty! Be it the individual or society.”
It will thus be clear that Deen Dayal Upadhyay was a great thinker who derived his inspiration from ancient India's cultural heritage and tradition. He made it clear that India cannot adopt the philosophy of Western individualism or of socialism as propounded by Karl Marx. Every particle contains the entire universe and the universe through every particle manifests in every other particle. We have inherited this invaluable integral thinking through our ancient traditions. The Bharathiya philosophy is integral. It uplifts the personality of the individual as well as the all-round prosperity of the society. If we want to reconstruct our national economy, we should do it in the light of 'Integral Humanism'. In line with our ethos, we will have to build up a de-centralised economy. Our great planning based on Western models cannot give work to every hand in India.
Government of India honoured Deendayal Upadhyaya with the Issue of a Commemorative Postage Stamp on 5th of May 1978.
In 1990 DEEN DAYAL UPADHYAYA COLLEGE, affiliated to the University of Delhi, was established.
Deen Dayal Upadhyaya College
Please see the Statue of Deendayal above
This constituent college of the University of Delhi was established in 1990 in memory of Late Pandit Deen Dayal Upadhyaya, a thinker, philosopher and renowned Social worker. It is a multi-faculty co-educational college having at present approximately 1500 students on its roles in various courses. The main focus of Deen Dayal Upadhyaya College is on the creation of confident, dedicated, honest, upright, spirited and poatriotic individuals who will be an asset to the sacred cause of selfless service of Bharatvarsha.
PANDIT DEENDAYAL UPADHYAYA
I had requested my Revered Friend Sadhu Prof. V. Rangarajan, Founder Trustee, Sri Bharatamata Gurukula Ashram Krishnarajapuram, Bangalore who had come into close contact with PANDIT DEENDAYAL UPADHYAYA in the last years of his life to send me the message of his tribute to Pandit Deendayal Upadhyaya. He has very kindly and spontaneously sent his message. I deem it a great privilege to publish below the Full Text of His Message.
Sadhu Prof. V. Rangarajan
“Pandit Deendayal Upadhyaya was the personification of humility, simple living and high thinking, dedication to the cause of Motherland, discipline, character and other noble virtues of the head and heart. He was a unique political leader of post-independent India for whom service of the nation and its people was a ‘dhyeya sadhana’—intense Tapas—not only for his own spiritual salvation, but for the emancipation of millions of children of the holy land of Bharatavarsha.
“Born on Monday, September 25, 1916, in a family which hailed from Brij region of Uttar Pradesh, Deendayalji lost both his father Bhagwati Prasad and mother Rampyari in his infancy and was brought up by his uncle. He grew up with an austere and tough life, but stood in the forefront in his studies and graduated from Kanpur University. He also qualified himself for ICS, but instead of choosing a lucrative career and life of comfort and pleasure, he dedicated his life for the service of his motherland by walking on the footsteps of his mentors, Dr. K.B. Hedgewar, the founder of Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh, and Sri Guruji Golwalkar, the second Sarsangchalak of the RSS, and became a pracharak along with his illustrious colleague, Nanaji Deshmukh. He started the Rashtra Dharma Prakashan, a publication wing of the Sangh, and Panchajanya weekly and Swadesh daily to spread the message of Sangh.
“When the great patriot and national leader, Dr. Shyam Prasad Mukherji, standing for the total integration of Kashmir with Bharat, came out of the Nehru Cabinet protesting against the policy of Pandit Nehru on Kashmir, and founded the Bharatiya Jan Sangh, Sri Guruji Golwalkar presented this gem of swayamsevak to Dr. Mukherji to help him in founding the political party in 1951. Though Deendayal was least interested in making politics his career, he took up the task given to him with the true dedication and spirit of service of a swayamsevak and played a great role in building up the party not only in northern India, but spread its wings to the southern most province of Kerala. Dr. Mukherji had rightly remarked about Deendayalji: ” If I had two Deendayals, I could transform the political face of India”.
“This writer, as a humble and dedicated full-time worker of RSS, met Pandit Deendayalji in 1967, when the latter came to Tiruchirappally to campaign for this sadhu who was fielded as a candidate of the Bharatiya Jan Sangh for the Tamilnadu Legislative Assembly from Tiruchi-1 constituency. A poor and penniless youth who didn’t have even a third set of clothes to wear, this sadhu was chosen as a candidate to contest against a Congress candidate who was chairman of Tiruchy Municipality and a prominent DMK leader, simply because he was totally dedicated to the cause of the country and the people and also hailed from a family which produced the great patriot and colleague of Veer Savarkar, Dr. T.S.S. Rajan who also belonged to Tiruchy. After inaugurating the election campaign of this sadhu in Tiruchy Medical Association Hall, Pandit Deendayalji gave a piece of wise counselling to this sadhu: “Do not bother about the outcome of this election. We are contesting not for the sake of power and position, but to carry to the masses the highest ideologies of the Jan Sangh and instil the nationalist and patriotic feelings in them”.
“After the elections, this sadhu moved to Delhi, Patna and later to Nagpur as Editor of Hindustan Samachar news agency. In Nagpur, while staying in ‘Dr. Hedgewar Bhavan’, the headquarters of RSS, this sadhu had the opportunity to watch from close quarters the humble, simple, austere and disciplined life of the great leader, Deendayalji. Whenever he came to Nagpur, he used to stay in the Bhavan, though he was a tall national President of a prominent political party. He used to sit in the common dining hall and take food with all of us, the workers of the Sangh, and Sri Guruji, and take bath in the common bathroom. One day, when Deendayalji was washing his clothes in the common bath room, this sadhu and another swayamsevak noticed that his buniyan (inner vest cloth) was torn in the back and he was using it after stitching it with his own hands. After he had hung his clothes for drying in the sun, we clandestinely removed the old buniyan, got a new one of white cloth stitched in the same form and put it on the lines. In the afternoon, when Deendayalji was searching for his buniyan we pointed to the new one and insisted that it was his. Deendayalji understood our game and coolly collected it. Next day, we found the cook of the Karyalaya was wearing it. When we questioned Deendayalji, he coolly replied that he did not need a new buniyan and the old one could serve him for another year. He asked us to return the old one to him.
“On February 11, 1968, sitting in the teleprinter room of Hindustan Samachar, this sadhu received the shocking news that Pandit Deendayal was found dead on the railway track at Mugalsarai Railway Station. We were all shell shocked, because only a few days earlier this sadhu had taken his interview in Nagpur. While giving interview to us, he jovially remarked: “Whenever a politician gives interview to a journalist, he will pamper the journalist with all delicacies and even gifts to get good publicity, but I want you to get me a cup of tea before we go in for the interview”. Accordingly we arranged for a cup of tea from the kitchen of the Karyalaya of the Sangh.Before he left Nagpur, Sri Guruji casually asked him, “When will we meet again?”” Deendayalji’s jovial reply, “We will meet in all births”, did not mean to us at that time that this great Tapasvi, had the premonition of his departure from this world very soon.
“Deendayalji was an ajatasatru, one who was always lovable, soft-spoken and one who never uttered harsh words against his opponents. His fearless expression of patriotic sentiments and ideals of intense nationalism attracted the wrath of unpatriotic and anti-national forces which planned to push him into the clutches of death. However, he will ever remain immortal in the hearts of millions of swayamsevaks and karyakartas for whom he is the ideal of patriotism, dedication and selfless service to the Hindu Rashtra. Vande Mataram! “